Merton was a 20th century sociologist whose focus was on social structure and anomie. He was interested in deviance due to high level of defiance in society. Merton questioned how structural conditions affect how different social groups react. He emphasized on the adaptation to anomie in which he defined as a social strain, a mismatch between cultural goals and the means to achieve these goals. Merton speaks on living in a hyper competition society in which people do not value competition itself but winning. For society the ends justify the means, people act to achieve, the goal is to win. Merton introduces four modes of adaptation to anomie: conformity , retreatism, innovation and rebellion. He believes that lack of opportunity, stress on financial success and the egalitarian ideology produces anomie. He believes poverty itself does not lead to crime which i agree with completely. Merton emphasizes that cultural factors accounts for crimes not biology.